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Publications that make use of David Grove's ideas

Publications that make use of David Grove's ideas are listed:
David Grove 2003
1. Academic and professional publications Authors A-L
2. Academic and professional publications Authors M-Z
3. Conference Presentations
4. Citations in academic and professional journals

I have also compiled lists of:

People engaged in clean-related research
Books/DVDs based on Grove's ideas
Bibliography of David Grove's publications

If you have anything to add please provide the reference via the contact form and I will gladly add it to the list. James Lawley, updated 5 Aug 2021.

1. Academic and professional publications and research - Authors A-L

Akbari, Mohsen (2013). Metaphors about EFL Teachers' Roles: A Case of Iranian Non-English-Major Students, International Journal of English Language & Translation Studies, Vol: 1, Issue: 2, July-September, 2013
Download: about EFL Teachers' Roles-A Case of Iranian Non-English-Major Students-Full Paper.pdf
This research used a methodology derived from Symbolic Modelling to identify ten kinds of metaphors used by Iranian Non-English-Major Students to describe 'English as a Foreign Language' (EFL) teachers. In order of commonality the metaphor-types were: a guide; a professional; a devil; an angel; a parent; a natural element; a machine; a creator; a wet blanket; and miscellaneous.

Barner, Robert (2008). The dark tower: Using visual metaphors to facilitate emotional expression during organizational change, Journal of Organizational Change Management, Vol. 21, Issue 1, pp. 120-137.
Provides a descriptive case study showing how the construction of drawings as visual metaphors can help work groups “give voice” to their emotional reactions to organizational change events, and provide groups with a vehicle for interpreting and framing their experience of organizational change. Throughout the team’s discussion, the author attempted to be guided by each team’s unique perspective and personal interpretation of their drawings by the use of “clean language”.

Boyd, Kelly J. (2013). The Language of Equus: Exploring Equine-Assisted Psychotherapy (EAP) Using the Equine Assisted Growth and Learning Association (EAGALA) Model, submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Social Work, Smith College School for Social Work, Northampton, MA.
Download: - Kelly J Boyd - Final.pdf
Explores the professional insights, personal experiences and perspectives of equine-assisted psychotherapy mental health practitioners - many of whom mention their use of clean language.

Britten, David (2015). Felt sense and figurative space: Clients' metaphors for their experiences of coaching. International Journal of Evidence Based Coaching and Mentoring. Special Issue No. 9, June 2015 pp. 14-29.
This study examines coaching clients' metaphors for their experiences of coaching. The findings suggest that eliciting metaphors is an effective, though problematic, means of generating experientially-rich research material. [Harland 2012 and Lawley & Tompkins 2000 are discussed.]

Buetow, S. (2013). The traveller, miner, cleaner and conductor: Idealized roles of the qualita-tive interviewer. Journal of Health Services Research & Policy18(1), 51-54. doi. org/10.1258/jhsrp.2012.012085
Qualitative researchers commonly receive simplistic advice on pitfalls to avoid when conducting interviews. ... This paper distinguishes between the roles of the miner, traveller, cleaner, and conductor. These roles are ‘ideal types’ that construct, as problematic or not, the use of contested interviewing practices such as ‘leading’ and assigning meaning to informant responses. The paper emphasizes how the ‘cleaner’ attempts to enable informants to interpret their own ubiquitous metaphors and symbolic language. ... ‘clean language’ can enable informants to interpret their own metaphors and symbolic language.

Cairns-Lee, Heather (2013). The Inner World of Leaders, Why Metaphors for Leadership Matter, Developing Leaders, Executive Education in Practice, Issue 13, Oct 2013 pp. 27-33, IEDP.
Download: Cairns-Lee2013-The_Inner_World_of_Leaders.pdf
The research is based on in-depth interviews with 30 people who hold positions of leadership in international businesses. The interviews are conducted using Clean Language and explore how leaders can become more aware of their inner mental models and the implications that result from them. This exploration surfaces and examines the naturally occurring metaphors and implicit theories held by leaders – the everyday images of what they think leadership is.

Cairns-Lee, Heather (2015). Images of Leadership Development From the Inside Out. Advances in Developing Human Resources, Volume 17, issue 3, pp.321-336.
This article explores the subjective and symbolic reality of those in leadership roles to discover what leaders can learn about their leadership and its development from awareness of their own mental models. These models are illuminated by an exploration of leaders’ naturally occurring metaphors and implicit leadership theories (ILTs) using clean language to acknowledge experience exactly as described while minimizing external influence or interpretation.

Cairns-Lee, Heather M. (2017). An exploration of leadership and its development through the inner worlds of leaders using metaphor. Doctoral thesis, University of Surrey.
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This research explores the naturally occurring metaphors of 30 business leaders from fifteen nationalities … It addresses the question; what can leaders learn about their leadership and development from an exploration of their inner worlds through metaphor? Using Clean Language, an innovative interview method to elicit naturally occurring metaphors, leaders were invited to surface and explore their metaphors of leadership verbally and in drawings. ... Diverse conceptualisations of leadership are revealed in multiple and idiosyncratic metaphors, yet ten 'key' metaphors appear to underlie these diverse expressions. Moreover, the importance of relationship to provide subtle guidance and comfort during exploration of the inner world was revealed. ... Methodological advances are proposed for qualitative interviews that aim to surface individuals’ metaphors.

Cairns-Lee, H. & Tosey P.C. (2014). Stepping Up, Stepping Back: Metaphors of Leadership. Presented at 15th International Conference on Human Resource Development Research and Practice across Europe. Theme “HRD: Reflecting upon the Past, Shaping the Future” 4-6 June, 2014, Edinburgh Napier University, Edinburgh, UK.
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This working paper reports on a longitudinal inductive study that seeks to elicit and explore the naturally occurring metaphors and implicit leadership theories (ILT) used by leaders of business to describe their own leadership and development. The research comprises 30 leaders in international business and combines a novel research method using Clean Language to elicit and explore metaphors with drawings to depict the metaphorical landscapes and implicit leadership theories (ILT) described in the interviews.

Calderwood, J. A. (2011). Pervasive Media Arts: Participation, Practice and Well-Being. Well-Being 2011: First International Conference Exploring the Multi-dimensions of Well-being, 18–19 July. Birmingham City University and the Royal Institute of British Architects (RIBA).
This paper introduces two arts-based action research doctoral projects that facilitate shared personal narratives discovered by walking in the landscape. One of the projects, Living Voices – a portable woodland walk featuring narratives from people who are living with the diagnosis of dementia – introduces the therapeutic approach of Clean Language within the recording process, and uses metaphor to elicit another layer of narrative, rich in textual imagery: each individual’s story is represented by a specific tree.

Calderwood, J. A (2012). Pervasive Media, Commons and Connections: Research as Reflective Studio Practice at Banff, Reviews in Cultural Theory 2.3 Special Issue: On the Commons. De Montfort University, Leicester UK Doctoral thesis: research by practice. Institute of Creative Technologies.

Calderwood, J. A. (2013) An interview with Charlotte Crofts creative producer of the Curzon Memories and Projection Hero. International Journal of Cinema 1. (July) pp. 12-23.

Calderwood, J. A. (2017). Pervasive media and eudaimonia: transdisciplinary research by practice. De Montfort University, Leicester UK. Doctoral thesis: research by practice. Institute of Creative Technologies.
Download: Calderwood_2017-PhD_eThesis.pdf
My use and interrogation of Clean methods, methodologies and principles – as artistic strategy – has pioneered new research, adding knowledge to the fields of art-making, research by practice, and Clean. Through experimentation with suggestive and autogenic metaphor, Clean Language, Clean Space and Emergent Knowledge, I have integrated Clean within the development of Experimental Walks, Hunter Gatherer and Living Voices. I have used clean and Symbolic Modelling in my research interviews and in the exposition of my framework and emergent model of Anthroposensory Sculpture.

Cásková, Kateřina (2015). Sharing tacit knowledge of students with their training teacher. Presented at SGEM 2015 International Multidisciplinary Scientific Conferences on Social Sciences and Arts. Education and Educational Research. Pragmatism and Education.
Download: Caskova2015-Sharing_Tacit_Knowledge-SGEM_conference_paper.pdf
The aim of the research is to identify which factors facilitated the sharing of tacit knowledge between student teacher and training teacher, what brings sharing of tacit knowledge to student teacher, and what brings sharing of tacit knowledge to training teacher. It will be illustrated on data which are gained by in-depth interview that is inspired by method called 'clean language'

Conway, Paul (2019). The Extraordinary in the Ordinary: SKYchology – An Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis of Looking Up at the Sky. Chapter 5, Proceedings of Presented Papers 5th Annual Applied Positive Psychology Symposium (Ed. G. M. Cseh)
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Clean Language an approach to questioning that “facilitates exploration of a person’s inner world through their own naturally occurring metaphors [to] gain a deeper understanding of each participant’s symbolic world” (Tosey, Lawley, & Meese, 2014, p. 634) was integrated into the schedule.

Cullen, Brian (2015) Clean Language in the Classroom. New Directions, Nagoya Institute of Technology Repository, 33: 73-78
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This paper explores how the questioning technique of Clean Language can be used in the ESL classroom to help students to explore and enrich their own metaphors in simple language.

de Bryas, Sophie (2005). Modélisation symbolique : apprendre et transmettre (Etude ethnométhodologique),  Université Paris-VIII, DESS Ethnométhodologie et Informatique.

Divett, Diane R. T. (2004). Refocussing: The Development and Definition of the Theory and Its Therapeutic Practice with Critical Analysis and Illustrative Case Studies. PhD thesis, University of Auckland, School of Education, New Zealand.
Refocussing is a clinical approach which uses David Grove's Clean Language and his metaphor therapy within the context of Christian theology.

Doyle, N., Tosey, P. & Walker, C. (2010). Systemic Modelling: Installing Coaching as a Catalyst for Organisational Learning, The Association for Management Education and Development – e-Organisations & People, Winter 2010, Vol. 17. No. 4
Download: Doyle-Tosey-Walker-Systemic-Modelling.pdf
We introduce the background to our organisational coaching process, Systemic Modelling, outlining where it comes from, how it works as a cornerstone of organisational development work and some practical examples. We present a case study with one corporate client to illustrate how it can be implemented, plus the results of our first evaluation. We use stories, metaphors and examples to track the shift in thinking of a group of senior managers from a silo-mentality, blame or defence culture to networking, collaboration and creativity. We conclude with a reflection on the whole process and the impact team coaching had on organisational learning.

Doyle, N. & McDowall, A (2015). Is coaching an effective adjustment for dyslexic adults?  
Coaching: An International Journal of Theory, Research and Practice, Published online: 25 Aug 2015.
Includes some of the first peer-reviewed evidence for the effectiveness of coaching models such as ‘symbolic modelling’ that assist coachees in developing positive models of their experience. For example, the coaching question ‘When you are organised at your best, it’s like what’ (Walker, 2014) leads to a review of the scenarios and contexts in which the coachee can organise. The study involved 95 dyslexic coachees who, along with 41 line managers, provided independent ratings of work performance both before and after the coaching was conducted. The results showed a statistically significant improvement in the most common five areas of work performance selected by coachees and their managers in the introductory coaching session.

Flynn, Jim (2009) MSc thesis: An exploratory study on the use of metaphor on creative cognition, University of Leicester, School of Psychology.
Download: Flynn_Creative_Cognition_and_Clean_Language.pdf 
Results from this study broadly support the notion that Clean Language promotes creative cognition.

Groppel-Wegener, Alke (2015). Design Tasks Beyond the Studio. In Vande Zande, R., Bohemia, E. & Digranes, I. (Eds). Proceedings of the 3rd International Conference for Design Education Researchers, 1:93-108. Aalto University. DOI: 10.13140/RG.2.1.1200.7520
Download: Groppel-Wegener_(2015)_Design_Tasks_Beyond_the_Studio.pdf
The research project investigated whether the design thinking and problem solving used in the studio can improve students' levels of academic literacy. Using the 'Fishscale of Academicness' that likens texts to fish and Lawley & Tompkins' Symbolic Modelling process, students verbalise in group discussions their understanding of what makes a source academic, and at the same time to physicalise them as a visual representation. This paper analyses the metaphors student groups developed and discovers that allowing students to design their own personalised (and visual) metaphors turned the abstract experience of analysing secondary sources into something more concrete.

Hanley, K.G. (2020). To work or not to work? That is the dilemma for older workers in Denmark, age 60+. PhD thesis, University of Brighton.
Danish language interviews were conducted with employees, using both standard and 'Clean Language' questions, producing qualitative data to answer the research question.

Harrer, Sabine (2014). From loss and grief to game designworking with the experience of bereaved mothers. CHIPlay 2014 - Participatory Design for Serious Game Design. br/>
Draws on the work of Lakoff & Johnson [1980] and Lawley & Tompkins [2000] in a PhD project at the Austrian Academy of Sciences, University of Vienna, Austria to answer the questions: "How can the experience of loss and mourning be communicated through digital game design? How can the voices of grieving people be made tangible through game mechanics, rules, and game fiction?"

Hartley, Tamsin
(2012). Cutting Edge Metaphors, Journal of the Association of Surgeons of Great Britain and Ireland Number 37, September 2012, pp. 26-29.

Hemmen, Verlyn D. (1995). Metaphors in Pastoral Care and Counseling: Utilizing the Therapeutic Model of David Grove. Submitted in partial fulfillment of the degree Doctor of Ministry, Faculty of Western Theological Seminary, Holland, Michigan.

Hyer, Lee & Brandsma, Jeffrey M (1997). EMDR Minus Eye Movements Equals Good Psychotherapy, Journal of Traumatic Stress, Vol. 10, No. 3, 1997, pp.515-522
The "sixth psychotherapy principle" to apply to EMDR is clean language (p. 519).

Janssen SKH, Mol APJ, van Tatenhove JPM & Otter HS (2014). The role of knowledge in greening flood protection. Lessons from the Dutch case study future Afsluitdijk, Ocean & Coastal Management, Volume 95, July 2014, pp. 219–232.
"The formal interviews had a semi-open character and were based on the clean language approach"

Just, Lara (2014). Why, when and how do qualified psychotherapists from a range of modalities make use of client-generated metaphors using Clean Language? A research thesis submitted in fulfilment of the requirements of Awaken School of Outcome Oriented Psychotherapies Ltd. for the Postgraduate Diploma in Outcome-oriented Psychotherapies, 16 December 2014.

Konat, B & Juszczyk, K (2015). Multimodal communication in career coaching sessions: lexical and gestural corpus study. Empirical Methods in Language Studies 37, 193-211.

Langley, A., & Meziani, N. (2020). Making interviews meaningful. Journal of Applied Behavioral Science, 1-22.
A second potentially useful approach is what has been called clean language interviewing, a method that consists of deliberately asking highly neutral questions that do not inadvertently influence interviewees’ responses. Tosey et al. (2014) propose this approach, derived from the clinical work of David Grove (Grove & Panzer, 1991) ...

Langseth, I. D. & Sedal, H. (2019). Smart Phones in Schools: In What Ways Can Coaching Empower Students to Make a Valid Judgement on When and How to Use Their Smart Phone? HUMAN IT 14.3:48–82.
The research included 20 school teachers developing their competences in clean language within the GROW coaching model.

Lawley, J. (2015). Acquiring Excellence. HEC Alumni Journal Sept/Oct pp.66-67
Download: Lawley2015-Acquiring Excellence.pdf
What is the basis of excellent behaviour – not in general, but for the individual exemplar of that excellence? The article explains and includes a short case study of modelling a sales method using Symbolic Modelling. Watch a video of the modelling session at:

Lawley, J (2017). Metaphor, Embodiment and Tacit Learning. Chapter 2 in Becoming a Teacher: The dance between tacit and explicit knowledge. V. Švec, J. Nehyba & P. Svojanovský et al. Brno:Masaryk University, pp.106-114.
Download: Lawley2017-Chapter2-Metaphor_Embodiment_Tacit_Learning.pdf
This chapter concentrates on a subset of the field of embodied cognition: embodied metaphor. It examines a variety of ways metaphors can be embodied and the links with tacit learning.

Lawley, J (2017). Clean Language Interviewing: Making qualitative research interviews verifiable. Chapter 3 in Becoming a Teacher: The dance between tacit and explicit knowledge. V. Švec, J. Nehyba & P. Svojanovský et. al (Eds.) Brno: Masaryk University, pp.115-122.
Download: Lawley2017-Chapter3-Clean_Language_Interviewing.pdf
This chapter examines how an interviewer’s use of linguistic structures, such as metaphor, presupposition and framing can unintentionally influence the content of an interviewee’s answers, and how that may compromise the authenticity and trustworthiness of the data collected (Lincoln & Guba, 1985). These concerns are addressed by a description of the Clean Language interview method, and a method for checking the validity of research interviews. Finally, there is a discussion of the relevance of Clean Language interviewing to tacit knowledge research.

Lawley, J. & Linder-Pelz, S. (2016). Evidence of competency: exploring coach, coachee and expert evaluations of coaching, Coaching: An International Journal of Theory, Research and Practice.
Download a free preprint version: Lawley&Linder-Pelz_CIJTRP_preprint_03_May_2016.pdf
Competency-based coach training and assessment implies that coaching skills and effectiveness are closely related. But who is best placed to determine ‘effectiveness’? This paper reports on research that examined how closely the evaluations of coachees, expert-assessors and coaches correspond. The research used a novel multi-method approach to triangulation including Clean Language interviewing (CLI) to explore coachees’ experience and evaluation of coaching.

Lawley, J. & Manea, A. I. (2017). The Use of Clean Space to Facilitate a “Stuck” Client – a Case Study, Journal of Experiential Psychotherapy, 20(4):62-70.
This first-of-its-kind academic paper consists of a case study of a spatially-based therapeutic approach, Clean Space, which facilitates a client through a “stuck” state. The study situates “clean” approaches within the context of mental space and metaphor research, outlines the method, and provides a full transcript of a session, explanatory commentary and client feedback.

Lawley J. Meyer M., Meese R., Sullivan W. & Tosey P. (2010) More than a Balancing Act?: 'Clean Language' as an innovative method for exploring work-life balance, October 2010, University of Surrey and Clean Change Company, ISBN: 978-1-84469-022-0.
Download: Clean_Language_WLB_final_report_October_2010.pdf
In this first funded research project to explore Clean Language, research partners, the Clean Change Company and the University of Surrey, collaborated to test the use of Clean Language as the principal research tool and  ‘discovery medium’ for exploring interviewees’ metaphors for ‘work-life balance’ (WLB). The purpose was three-fold: (1) To explore how Clean Language could generate insights into the experience of individual participants, and into understandings of the nature of WLB generally, through its capacity for eliciting participant-generated (autogenic) metaphors; (2) To test the application of Clean Language as a research methodology; (3) To pave the way for further research into, or utilising, Clean Language.

Lawley, J. & Tompkins, P. (2011). Metaphor, the Body and Health, The CAPA Quarterly, Issue One, February. Journal of the Counsellors and Psychotherapists Association of NSW Inc. ISSN 1835-937X.

Lawley, J., Tompkins, P. & Manea, A. I. (2018). The Analysis of Solution-Focused Brief Therapy from a Clean Language Perspective., Journal of Experiential Psychotherapy, 21(2):3-20.
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This paper compares and analyses Solution-Focused Brief Therapy (SFBT) through the paradigm of Clean Language and Symbolic Modelling at three levels: intention, process and practice. The aim is to identify specific similarities and differences between the two approaches in order for practitioners of both to mutually benefit. ...
[NOTE: As well as the specific findings, this paper points to a new methodology for how CL & SyM can be used to analyse and learn from other approaches.]

Linder-Pelz, S. & Lawley, J. (2015). Using Clean Language to explore the subjectivity of coachees' experience and outcomes. International Coaching Psychology Review, 10(2):161-174 September 2015 ISSN: 1750-2764.
Download a free preprint version: Linder-Pelz_Lawley-ICPR_preprint_15_Jun_2015.pdf
This paper contributes methodologically and substantively to understanding how coachees experience and evaluate coaching. First, we explore the use of ‘Clean Language’ as a phenomenological approach to coaching research, including the eliciting and analysing of data into findings and insights for coaches and coach trainers. Second, we explore the nature of events, effects, evaluations and outcomes reported by six coachees after single coaching sessions.
The interviews elicited detailed information on many aspects of coaching without the interviewer introducing any topics. 

Lloyd, Jonathan
(2011). The Use of Metaphor in Counselling and Qualitative Research Interviews. Assignment three of a Professional Doctorate in Counselling, School of Education, Faculties of Humanities, University of Manchester.
Download: Lloyd-Metaphor_in_Counselling_and_Qualitative_Research_Interviews.pdf
The use of metaphor in therapy is relatively common, although its specific conscious use as seen in Grove’s work continues to be unknown in the counselling world. This paper has also highlighted the possible use of Clean Language and metaphors in the research domain to enhance the richness of resultant data. ... Rather than looking at the hermeneutics, the meaning of the text, I want to investigate how much meaning is created by the questions posed. ... The profound findings that Clean Language, focusing on memory and metaphor, can increase the resultant amount of meaning by a factor of five.

Lloyd, Jonathan (2015) The Therapeutic Use of Metaphor: A Heuristic Study. A thesis submitted to The University of Manchester for the degree of Professional Doctorate in the Faculty of Humanities.
Download: Lloyd2015-PhDthesis-TherapeuticUseofMetaphor.pdf
This research was designed to explore the experience and understanding of counsellors’ and psychotherapists’ engagement with metaphors in the therapeutic process. The aim is to reflect on the experience of therapists involved in therapeutic metaphors from differing perspectives. It appears that the use of metaphor in therapy is pervasive and offers an opportunity for therapeutic change. [NB. Includes plenty of references to David Grove's work]

Continue to Authors M-Z

Publications that make use of David Grove's ideas

2. Academic and professional publications and research –Authors M-Z

Link to authors A-L

Manea, A. I. & Barbu, I. A. (2017). Mental Space meets Psychology – a new Paradigm and Approach to Psychotherapy, Journal of Experiential Psychotherapy, 20 (3), 37-43.
This paper outlines the basic concepts of mental space representations, its primary concepts and the connection to psychology and psychotherapy. Also included are the descriptions of three mental space based psychotherapies [including Clean Space] and their applications. A comprehensive list of references containing case-studies and researches is also provided.

Manea, A. I. & Barbu, I. A. (2018). Psihoterapiile Spațiale O abordare emergentă, ArtTE - Revista de terapii creativ-expresive și dezvoltare personală unificatoare, volumul 5, numarul 8.
Download: Psihoterapiile Spațiale O abordare emergentă
Article published in ArtTE: The magazine of creative-expressive therapies and personal development
about Mental Space Psychology as an emergent approach with a section dedicated to Clean Space

Martin, J. N.T.
(2007). Book Review: Metaphors in Mind: Transformation Through Symbolic Modelling, by James Lawley and Penny Tompkins, Metaphor and Symbol, 22(2):201-211.
Download prepress version: Martin_2007-Metaphors_in_Mind_Review.pdf
Conversations at a recent [metaphor] conference suggested that the work [Metaphors in Mind] describes is not yet well known to metaphor researchers. Perhaps this reflects the gulf between the practitioner/trainer world of shared experiences and face-to-face contact versus the academic world of journal articles and statistics. But if I had a research student working on metaphor, experience of Lawley and Tompkins' work would be a key part of the basic training because of its striking capacity to bring our internal metaphorical worlds to life.

Martin, J. N.T. & Sullivan, W. (2007). "... and good systems practice is [pause] like [pause] what?": 'Clean Language' and 'Metaphor Landscapes' as potential tools in Systems Practice. A revised version of the paper presented at the 11th United Kingdom Systems Society (UKSS) International Conference, Oxford University, 3-5 September 2007, Joined up thinking for a joined up world. Revised version published in Systemist Vol 29, No 3, Nov 2007.
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Checkland has referred to the primacy of cognitive processes, and the importance of self-reflection and phenomenology in modern Systems thinking. This paper takes that position at its face value and describes a way of reflecting on one’s sense-making cognitive processes that is well established in its own domain, but not widely known to Systems practitioners. It was developed as ‘clean language’ by David Grove (Grove & Panzer, 1989) and subsequently codified as ‘symbolic modelling’ by James Lawley and Penny Tompkins (Lawley & Tompkins, 2000).

McGrath, M. (1998). A Study in the Use of Symbolism in Counselling. MA thesis: University of Durham, Centre for Studies in Counselling.

Munsoor, M. S. (2018) Knowing Thyself: A Causal Model of Spiritual Leadership and Self-Development: A Case Study of the Naqshbandiyah Khalidiyah Spiritual Order in Malaysia. Department of Aqida and Islamic Thought, Academy of Islamic Studies, University of Malaya, Malaysia. (Doctoral thesis)
The emerging data set was constructed through the use of the ‘clean language’ approach, which builds on the original narratives of the subjects, with methodological triangulation including interview and survey data.

Naughton, L. (2009). Beyond Narrative: Modelling Metaphor in Environmental Discourse. MSc thesis:Cranfield University, School of Applied Sciences innovation and Design for Sustainability.
Download: Naughton_Beyond_Narrative-Modelling_Metaphor_in_Environmental_Discourse.pdf

Needham-Didsbury, I. (2011). The Application of Metaphors in Psychotherapy, a dissertation submitted in partial fulfilment of the requirement for the Masters in Research in Speech, Language & Cognition, University College London, Division of Psychology & Language Sciences.
Download: Needham-Didsbury_Application_of_Metaphors_in_Psychotherapy.pdf

Needham-Didsbury, I. (2012). The Use of Figurative Language in Psychotherapy, University College London, Working Papers in Linguistics 2012, pp. 75-93
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This paper surveys a proportion of the literature on the use of metaphor in psychotherapy including Grove's work and Symbolic Modelling.

Needham-Didsbury, I. (2014). Metaphor in Psychotherapeutic Discourse: Implications for Utterance. Poznań Studies in Contemporary Linguistics, 50(1), 2014, pp. 75–97.
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This paper examines figurative expressions in two passages from attested psychotherapy exchanges where explicit use is made of metaphor for therapeutic purposes and discusses the use of Clean Language in this context.

Nehyba, J. & Lanc, J. (2013). Koncept čistého jazyka v psychoterapii (The Concept of Clean Language in Psychotherapy), Psychoterapie: praxe – inspirace – konfrontace, 7(2) 123-133 Brno: Masaryk university.
The article introduces 'clean language' or a 'clean approach' - one of the post-modern oriented therapeutic approaches, building on the ideas of the late David Grove. The way of facilitating the therapeutic session is specific in the 'cleanness' from the therapists conscious and unconscious contents it strives for in the interaction. This allows the client to immerse himself deeper in his own mind-body processes and their organization. After the theoretical background, the article focuses on the practical example of how is possible to 'let emerge' metaphors, self-reflections, insights or 'aha!' moments for the client. In the concluding part, the text offers a discussion of the principles of the clean approach and the ways it can be inspiring for therapists.

Nehyba, J. & Lawley, J. (2020). Clean Language Interviewing as a second-person method in the Science of Consciousness, Journal of Consciousness Studies, 27(1–2):94–119
Download preprint: Nehyba&Lawley2020-Clean Language Interviewing-JoCS PREPRINT.pdf
This article reports on Clean Language Interviewing (CLI), a rigorous, recently developed ‘content-empty’ (non-leading) approach to second-person interviewing in the science of consciousness. Also presented is a new systematic third-person method of validation that evaluates the questions and other verbal interventions by the interviewer to produce an adherence-to-method or ‘cleanness’ rating. A review of 19 interviews from five research studies provides a benchmark for interviewers seeking to minimise leading questions. The inter-rater reliability analysis demonstrates substantial agreement among raters with an average Intraclass Correlation Coefficient of 0.72 (95% CI). We propose that this method of validation is applicable not only to CLI but to second-person interviews more generally.

Nehyba, J., & Svojanovský, P. (2017). Clean language as a data collection tool. Chapter 5 in V. Švec, J. Nehyba & P. Svojanovský, et al., Becoming a teacher: The dance between tacit and explicit knowledge (pp. 130-147). Brno: Masaryk University.
Download at: Nehyba&Svojanovsky2017-Clean_language_as_a_data_collection_tool.pdf
This chapter explains and evaluates how the data collection method entitled Clean Language was implemented in our research. In the context of pedagogical sciences, it is a new way of interviewing, which helps to gather data as closely as possible from first person (Searle, 1992; Varela, 1999). We explain how we understand the term Clean Language and how we interpret it, and then move to the actual analysis of how we used this method in practice, i.e. in conducting the research interviews.

Nixon, S. (2013). Using Metaphors to Aid Student Meta-Learning: When You’re Learning at Your Best Your Like What?, Creative Education 2013. Vol.4, No.7A2, 32-36 Published Online July 2013 in SciRes.
This paper adds to the body of knowledge in relation to students using metaphor as a tool to support meta-learning. This project focuses on what students are like when they are “learning at their best” and discusses what knowing this information does for both individual self-awareness and working with others. Six final year students spent half a day exploring, developing and pictorially representing their “learning at best” metaphors.  All six students were positive that the development of personal learning metaphors was beneficial and thought that it was important that these were developed systematically over time. The benefits were highlighted to be both for the individual working on their own and for understanding others in group work situations.

Nixon, S. (2014). Teaching and learning pedagogies to enhance practice in Higher Education: a practitioner's perspective. A thesis submitted in partial fulfilment of the requirements of Liverpool John Moores University for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy. Liverpool John Moores University, Faculty of Education, Health and Community.
This mixed method approach studied the enhancement of the student experience through creating conditions where excellent learning can occur both individually and through working in communities of practice. Includes the application of Clean Language and Systemic Modelling.

Nixon, S. & Walker, C. (2009). Personal Development Planning - Inspiring Capability, chapter 11 in Enhancing Student Centred Learning in Business and Management, Hospitality, Leisure, Sport and Tourism, edited by John Buswell and Nina Becket for HLST, Oxford Brookes University, published by Threshold Press.
Download: Nixon_&_Walker-PDP_Inspiring_Capability.pdf
PDP has been an area of interest within the Sport Development programme at Liverpool John Moores University. The chapter begins with the context for the project and what we wanted to happen. Then outlines the philosophy underpinning our approach and introduce key features including the notion of autogenic metaphors for learning, clean (metaphor-free) questions, clean set-up and clean feedback. It continues with how we engaged staff and students, some challenges, learning and the impact so far, and then ends with a summary of how we will do things differently in the coming year year

Nixon, S. & Walker, C. (2009). Modelling the curriculum through metaphors: one programme's approach, CETL Journal: Innovations in Practice, 1(2), 3-6.
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As part of exploring Personal Development Planning (PDP) across the Sport Development programme we decided to gather the views of staff on the programme to see if we could agree on a common model, philosophy and message. This approach, called Metaphors at Work (Walker 2007), allows individuals and groups to explore their own thoughts and perceptions on a subject, in this case the degree programme, through the development of metaphors [using Clean Language] and their associated meaning. The process has a number of stages which are documented in this paper with the overall objective being to get to a jointly shared view amongst staff.

Open University (1999). Imagery and Metaphor, part of the OU Business and Management postgraduate course B822: Creativity, Innovation and Change produced by John Martin. The course includes three videos related to David Grove's work featuring Caitlin Walker: Engaging the Imagination; Group Metaphor Development; and Clean Language.
These videos can be seen at:
How do you address problematic issues at work? This [programme] reveals more creative ways to solve problems, other than relying on rational techniques such as brainstorming and lateral thinking. Employees at a small software company are shown how to access their unconscious minds using the power of imagery, associative thinking, [Clean Language] and metaphor, to find solutions and creative approaches to their work. Meanwhile at a Neuro-Linguistic Programming seminar, participants learn to use metaphor for practical problem-solving. The facilitators also comment and discuss their techniques and observations, including the significance of gesture, body language and breathing in the sessions.

Open University (2004). Practical Thinking: an online course in perception, ideas and action, T185, part of the Technology Faculty’s 'Relevant Knowledge' programme (2004-2006, no longer available) produced by John Martin:
This ten-week course  is presented online and explores the practical role of metaphor in shaping and transforming various areas of imagery, thinking and communication. Application areas include the concept development stages of policy-making and design, the generation of ideas, visualising implementation issues, the communication of complex project ideas, problem-solving, resolving differences, and so on. T185 draws heavily on the ideas of cognitive scientists such as Lakoff and Johnson, classic writers on creative problem solving such as George Prince, management writers such as Gareth Morgan and practitioners such as Lawley and Tompkins.

Owen, I. R. (1989). Beyond Carl Rogers: The work of David Grove, Journal of Interprofessional Care, 4(4), 186-196.
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This paper introduces the psychotherapy of David Grove. It re-emphasizes the need for therapists, or healers of all kinds, to be aware of the language, therapeutic structure and experience of clients. Clients' experiences are more fully understood in the context of greater awareness of the inter-relationships of language, experience, belief, enculturation and communication. The case for a phenomenological therapy is put forward.

Owen, I. R. (1991) Using the sixth sense: The place and relevance of language in counselling British Journal of Guidance & Counselling 19:3 307-319 DOI: 10.1080/03069889108260394
The last section of this paper outlines a form of therapy devised by David Grove and using clean language that has been demonstrated to 20,000 therapists worldwide since 1985.

Owen, I. R. (1996). Clean Language: A linguistic-experiential phenomenology, in A.-T. Tymieniecka (Ed.) Analecta Husserliana, Vol. 48. pp. 271-297, Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic.
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In this study [David Grove's] clean language is applied to make a reproducible method for phenomenologists as this new procedure adheres to many phenomenological first principles. The method reveals the place of metaphor and metonymy as possible connections between language and lived experience.

Philmon, J. N. (2019) Pushing toward Pushback: A Phenomenological Multi-Case Study Exploring the Transformative Potential of Coaching Conversations. A Dissertation Submitted to the Faculty in the Curriculum and Instruction Program of Tift College of Education at Mercer University, Atlanta, GA, in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree Doctor of Philosophy.
Download from: Philmon2019-PhD-Dissertation.pdf
The research used a Clean Language interview protocol designed to ensure that “all descriptions and evaluations are sourced exclusively from the interviewee’s personal vocabulary and experience” (Lawley & Linder-Pelz, 2016, p. 120). The Clean Language interviews involved combining the participant’s own words with 12 reflective question stems to conceptualize the experience from their unique point of view.

Pickerden, A. M. (2013) How do older workers in the fire & Rescue service deal with work life balance issues as they plan for, approach and transition through retirement? Thesis submitted for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy at the University of Leicester.
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The research made use of Clean Language during the interviews (pp. 95-96).

Pieśkiewicz, B. & Kołodkiewicz, M. (2011). Metafora w coachingu: zastosowanie metody Clean Coaching w pracy z organizacjami [Metaphor in coaching: Application of Clean Coaching method in working with organisations]. In: Czarkowska, L. (ed.), Coaching jako katalizator rozwoju organizacji [Coaching as a catalyst in orgnizational growth]. Warszawa: New Dawn.

Pincus, D. & Sheikh, A.A. (2009). Clean Language and Metaphor: The Work of David Grove in Imagery for Pain Relief: A scientifically grounded guidebook for clinicians. pp. 206-224 London: Routledge.

Pincus, D. & Sheikh, A.A.
(2011) David Grove's Metaphor Therapy. Imagination, Cognition and Personality 30(3) 259-287.
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Within the ever-expanding list of approaches to psychotherapy, there is a tendency to overlook deep imagery approaches. The current article reports on one such metaphor-based therapy developed by David Grove (Grove & Panzer, 1989). The approach is analyzed within the context of mainstream contemporary psychotherapy in general, the state of empirical understanding of common processes to psychotherapy, and in relation to other deep imagery-based approaches to therapy. Next, a step-by-step description of the techniques used within metaphor therapy are presented, along with a case example demonstrating the use of these techniques on a case involving pain symptoms. Finally, it is argued that deep imagery approaches in general, and Grove's approach in particular, may provide a means for greater theoretical integration within integrative healthcare.

Pole, N. & Cadney, P. (2016) ‘Very, Very Traumatic’ Working with Trauma with Clean Language and Shiatsu. Shiatsu Society Journal (UK), Winter 2016, Issue 140.
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Rain, T., Lawley, J. & Henwood, S. (2016) From coaching and therapy to research interviewing: reflections and recommendations from practice. Acuity, April 2016 Volume 5.
Download: Rain_Lawley_Henwood2016-Research_Interviewing-Acuity_publication.pdf 
This article shares the personal experiences of one practitioner (Thora Rain) who made a successful transition to researcher. It focuses on the adjustments practitioners need to make to become high-quality researchers. It also draws on the longer experience of two of the paper authors (James Lawley and Suzanne Henwood) and offers some guidance to those thinking about taking on a research role, mentioning clean interviewing as a "helpful methodology".

Rees, J. & Manea, A.I. (2016). The Use of Clean Language and Metaphor in Helping Clients Overcoming Procrastination. Journal of Experiential Psychotherapy. 19 (3).
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In psychotherapy, coaching and personal development, problems are often framed in terms of metaphor. For example, procrastination might be described as a “mysterious” force, holding the client back from creating the happy, fulfilled life he often dreams of. Clean Language, created by the late David Grove between the 1980s and the 1990s, is a process designed to use such client metaphors as an engine for positive change. In this article, we show how it works in a typical one-on-one session.

Robinson (Foreman), F. (2013). How does exploring metaphorical representations of organisational change at its best affect levels of well-being in an ambiguous and rapidly changing public sector work environment?  Paper presented to The Third International Neuro-Linguistic Programming Research Conference, Hertfordshire University, 6-7th July 2012.
A shorter version was published in Acuity, 2013(4), 104-126
Full paper at:

This study found that exploring metaphorical representations of organisational change at its best correlated significantly with increasing well-being during a period of organisational change; potentially mitigating deleterious effects and causing a small well-being uplift. Group and one-to-one interventions showed similar well-being correlations over a three-month period. However, the nature of the effect was different, with insights and positive affect the prime outcome for the one-to-one intervention, and workshops additionally leading to experimentation with new skills. There are four implications of this study for clean language practitioners. Firstly, clean language and symbolic modelling interventions are suitable as part of the change management mix to support employee well-being. Secondly, metaphorical interventions have effects over time, undertaking interventions over a period is recommended. Thirdly, creating an open, safe environment for exploration and insight is key to supporting well-being. Finally, teaching clean language will enable application of learning into other contexts. Using one-to-one interventions may require more sessions to lead to behavioural change.

Rusch, D. C. (2017) Making Deep Games – Designing Games with Meaning and Purpose. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press Taylor & Francis Group.
This book offers a perspective into how to make games that tackle the whole bandwidth of the human experience, games that teach us something about ourselves enable thought-provoking emotionally rich experiences and promote personal and social change. Dr Rusch, Ass. Prof. at DePaul University says "the book is strongly influenced by Metaphor Research and Symbolic Modeling". See especially section 3.3.1.

Sanders, J., de Vries, R., Besseling, S., & Nieuwenhuijze, M. (2018) 'Such a waste'–Conflicting communicative roles of Dutch midwifery students in childbirth decision making - Midwifery, Volume 64, September 2018, Pages 115-121.
In-depth interviews and a focus group with seventeen Dutch midwifery students were conducted and analyzed applying a grounded theory approach. The interviewer asked neutral, non-judgmental questions, using clean language (Tompkins and Lawley, 1997).

Schenck, K. (2013). "So What's a Meta For?" InterAction - The Journal of Solution Focus in Organisations, Volume 5, Number 2, November 2013, pp. 35-53(19), SFCT.
The approach of “Clean Language” has cultivated a whole set of questions that may be helpful to know about, and useful for extending the toolbox of Solution Focus questions.

van Schuppen, L., Sanders, J. & van Krieken, K. (2021) Navigating Narrative Subjectivity in Schizophrenia: A Deictic Network Analysis of Narrative Viewpoints of Self and Other Inquiries. In Macagno, Fabrizio, Capone, Alessandro (Eds.) Inquiries in Philosophical Pragmatics: Issues in Linguistics. Springer.
An interview was conducted according to the clean language method (Lawley and Tompkins, 2000), which is aimed at minimizing the influence of the interviewer on the verbal narrative production of the interviewee by evading interpretive and morally loaded words like 'problem', 'normal', 'strange', and 'false', and asking for clarification without offering interpretation (p.178)

Sinnige, M. (2019). Bijgewoond: Clean Space. Workshop begeleid door James Lawley en Michael Oskam Haptonomisch Contact nr 1 30e jaargang maart 2019 pp 12-13.
Clean Space: A workshop supervised by James Lawley and Michael Oskam, Journal of Haptonomic Contact, nr 1, 30th volume, March 2019, pp 12-13. (in Dutch and translated into English).

Smith, K. (2014). Towards a Model of Clean Supervision. The Listener: A journal for coaches No.6 October 2014.
Download: Smith2014-Towards_a_Model_of_Clean_Supervision.pdf

Švec, V., Nehyba, J. & Svojanovský, P. (Eds.). (2016). STUDENTI UČITELSTVÍ MEZI TACITNÍMI A EXPLICITNÍMI ZNALOSTMI Brno: Masarykova Univerzita MUNI press. ISBN:978-80-210-8428-5 doi:10.5817/CZ.MUNI.M210-8429-2016
The book (in Czech) discusses: metaphors, sharing knowledge, subjective tacit theories of teaching students teachers, unexpected circumstances and Clean Language research interviewing.
Chapter authors: Vlastimil Švec, Jan Nehyba, Petr Svojanovský, James Lawley, Radim Šíp, Eva Minaříková, Blanka Pravdová, Barbora Šimůnková, Jan Slavík.
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English transaltion  Švec, V., Nehyba, J. & Svojanovský, P. (Eds.) (2017). Becoming a teacher: The dance between tacit and explicit knowledge. Brno: Masaryk University. ISBN:978-80-210-8605-0 doi:10.5817/CZ.MUNI.M210-8605-2017
Download free from: (click "English")
The book focuses on pre-service teachers’ tacit knowledge in the second stage of their studies. It deals with the theoretical background and highlights the need for a radical turn in the methodology when we want to explore this concept. Drawing on this, a qualitative method of data collection which was used in the presented research, so called clean language, is described in detail. The empirical part of the book presents studies concerning topics connected to pre-service teachers’ tacit knowledge – unexpected situations, student teachers’ beliefs or explicit and tacit knowledge sharing.

Seldon, B. (2010). How Clean Is Our Language? Training and Development in Australia, Vol. 37, No. 4, Jul 2010: 36-37.
Purchase at:;dn=329133785918865;res=IELBUS

Sinclair, J. (2019). The Wave Model: A Holistic Exploration of thesea's positive effect on wellbeing. Chapter 6, Proceedings of Presented Papers 5th Annual Applied Positive Psychology Symposium (Ed. G. M. Cseh)
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Questions were asked strategically to expand on nominalisations to help explore ongoing processes present for the interviewee using a ‘clean language’ interviewing technique (Sullivan & Rees, 2008).

Snoddon, M. (2005). Legacy of War: Experiences of members of the Ulster DefenceRegiment, Conflict Trauma Resource Centre, Belfast.
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Research included use of Clean Language in 12 interviews of individuals and four workshops each attended by 20 participants.

van Helsdingen, A. & Lawley, J. (2012). Zuiver belevingsonderzoek: het vermijden van onbedoelde beïnvloeding in kwalitatief onderzoek, Kwalon, 17(3):43-50.
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Translated from the original Dutch version as Modelling Shared Reality: avoiding unintended influence in qualitative research, Kwalon Vol 3, October 2012. (Journal of the Netherlands Association for Qualitative Research).
Available in English at:
Modelling Shared Reality is a new qualitative research methodology which is rooted in Clean Language and Symbolic Modelling. It minimizes undesired influence of the researcher during all stages of the research: design, interviews, analysis and reporting. The methodology is action oriented: both the process and the results function as a catalyst for action, behavioural and organizational change.

Vanson, S. (2011). Aligning identity in legal services firms: Do senior partners in legal services firms possess the core characteristics of identity to work in alignment within the firm? Thesis submitted in partial fulfilment for award of the degree of Doctor of Business Administration, University of Portsmouth, June 2011.
The study used clean language techniques to take out presupposition and incorporate narrative spacing in the questions asked of 11 senior partners from large UK law firms working across a range of legal specialisms.

Tompkins, P. & Lawley, J. (2006). Coaching with Metaphor, in Cutting Edge Coaching Techniques Handbook, Chartered Institute of Personnel and Development, Coaching at Work, September 2006
Read article at:

Tompkins, P., Sullivan, W. & Lawley, J. (2005). Tangled Spaghetti in My Head: Making use of metaphor, Therapy Today, Journal of the British Association for Counselling and Pychotherapy, October 2005.
Read article at:

Tosey, P. (2011). 'Symbolic Modelling' as an innovative phenomenological method in HRD research: the work-life balance project, presented at the 12th International Conference on HRD Research and Practice across Europe, University of Gloucestershire, 25th–27th May 2011.
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This project applied symbolic modelling in order to elicit the naturally occurring metaphors of six mid-career managers in the UK, relating to the way they experienced work-life balance. The analysis yielded a unique metaphor landscape for each manager. A key finding is that, although the ‘work-life balance’ metaphor is widespread, not one of the interviewees’ main metaphors overtly involved ‘a balance’. However, a number of their metaphors implied some form of balancing, for example ‘juggling’, ‘surfing’, or being in ‘equality’. The study illustrates potential enhancements that symbolic modelling and the clean language questioning technique can bring to phenomenological interviewing and analysis in HRD research. The results also have implications for the understanding of work-life balance, and for managers and human resource professionals who are dealing with work-life balance issues in the workplace.

Tosey, P.(2014). Clean Language in Research Interviews. Rapport 40 pp.44-46.
Download: Tosey-2014-Clean_Language_Interviews-Rapport40pp44-46.pdf
This introductory article outlines applications of Clean Language to research interviewing. Interviewers are likely to find Clean Language accessible and of potential use as an approach to data gathering.

Tosey, P. (2015). And what kind of question is that? Thinking about the function of questions in qualitative interviewing. Chapter 14 in Handbook of Research Methods on Human Resource Development. Editors, Saunders, M. N. K. & Tosey, P. Edward Elgar Publishing.
Look inside the book:
This chapter explores qualitative interviewing, drawing from a project that investigated managers' metaphors of work-life balance, informed by a practice called Clean Language. The chapter highlights the function of questions in interviews and considers how to design and ask questions in order to elicit data of good quality.

Tosey, P., Lawley, J. & Meese, R. (2014). Eliciting Metaphor through Clean Language: an Innovation in Qualitative Research, British Journal of Management. Vol. 25, 629–646. doi: 10.1111/1467-8551.12042. Purchase at:
Download a free copy of preprint version:
This paper shows how an innovative method of questioning called Clean Language can enhance the authenticity and rigour of interview-based qualitative research. We investigate the specific potential of Clean Language as a method for eliciting naturally occurring metaphors in order to provide in-depth understanding of a person's symbolic world; despite substantial interest in metaphors in the field of organizational and management research there is a lack of explicit, systematic methods for eliciting naturally occurring metaphors. We also demonstrate how Clean Language can improve qualitative research more widely by addressing the propensity for researchers inadvertently to introduce extraneous metaphors into an interviewee's account at both data collection and interpretation stages. Data are presented from a collaborative academic–practitioner project in which Clean Language was used as a method of interviewing to elicit the metaphors of six mid-career managers, relating to the way they experienced work–life balance. The first contribution of this paper is to demonstrate the potential of Clean Language for eliciting naturally occurring metaphors in order to provide in-depth understanding of a person's symbolic world. The second contribution is to show how Clean Language can enhance the rigour and authenticity of interview-based qualitative research more widely.

Tosey, P., Sullivan, W. & Meyer, M. (2013). Clean Sources: Six Metaphors a Minute? University of Surrey ISBN: 978-1-84469-029-9.
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It is frequently suggested, in relation to Clean Language, that people use six metaphors a minute. But do you know where that figure comes from, and what it is based upon?

Walker, C. (2006). Breathing in Blue by Clapton Duck Pond, Counselling Children and Young People, British Association of Counselling and Psychotherapy, Dec 2006, pp.2-5.
Download: Walker2006-Breathing in Blue.pdf

Walsh, B. , Nixon, S. , Walker, C. and Doyle, N. (2015). Using a Clean Feedback Model to Facilitate the Learning Process. Creative Education, 6, 953-960.
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In this article we examine the “clean feedback” model developed by Walker and Doyle (2006) and explore its impact on the learning experiences of a purposeful sample of eleven beginning physical education teachers. The findings indicate that the model has improved the students’ ability to give and receive both positive and negative feedback and to improve students self awareness and understanding of their own learning and teaching styles.

Ward, C., Tosey, P. & Cairns-Lee, H. (2013). 'A Strange Route to Get Here': Metaphors of Leadership Development and Leadership. Presented at 14th International Conference on Human Resource Development Research and Practice across Europe, 5-7 June 2013: HRD in Turbulent Seas-Continued Global Economic Uncertainty: Challenges and Opportunities. University of Brighton, Brighton Business School, UK.
The purpose of this paper is to explore leaders’ naturally occurring metaphors of leadership development and leadership. It reports a secondary analysis of interview transcripts from a study (Ward and Preece, 2012) of seven leaders.

Way, M (2018) Finding your creative place with Clean Space. Rapport, Issue 61, pp. 44-45.

Wilson, C. (2012) “Do you see what I see?” Coaching at Work. Vol 7 Issue 3, pp.52-53.
Download: Wilson2012-Do you see what I see-Coaching at Work.pdf
An account of a session that combines Clean Language and metaphor with an Emergent Knowledge technique called Clean Boundaries.

Wing, S. B. (1994) David Grove Metaphor Therapy and traumatic memory resolution with incarcerated sex offenders. A dissertation submitted in partial fulfilment for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy in Clinical Psychology, The Union Institute & University, Ohio. March 1994.

3. Conference Presentations (without published papers)

Caulderwood, J. A. (2013)
'Metaphors of Research-Practice: An Interview Study'. Well-Being 2013 International Conference. Birmingham City University 24-25 July 2013. Download abstract.

Caulderwood, J. A. & Sullivan, W. (2013)
'Finding Your Personal Metaphor for Well-being: A Creative Workshop'. Well-Being 2013 International Conference. Birmingham City University 24-25 July 2013. Download abstract.

Claudatus, Justina (2005)
'An introduction to Transformation through Symbolic Modelling'. The 2° Conference on Brief Strategic and Systemic Therapy' Nov 9-13, 2005. Abstract published in Brief Strategic and Systemic Therapy European Review, No. 2, 2005.
Download abstract: 2005/Abstracts.pdf

de Gandt,  Jennifer  (2013)
'The power of personal metaphor: A meeting with David Grove'. Researching and Applying Metaphor (RAAM) Adam Mickiewicz University, Poznan, Poland, from 2-4 May 2013

Doyle, Nancy (2010)
'Creating the Conditions for Agency'. A paper presented to British Psychological Society's Division of Occupational Psychology Annual Conference (published as part of their Symposium on Unemployment).
Press report at:
Download slides:

Doyle, Nancy & Walker Caitlin (2013)
'Clean Language: a methodology for individual systems and systems of individuals' presented to European Coaching Psychology Conference in Edinburgh on 12 December 2013, hosted by British Psychological Society, Special Group in Coaching Psychology.
Download slides: Doyle_&_Walker_Clean_Language_presentation_for_BPS-SGCP.pdf

Doyle N, Walker C, Nixon, S, Walsh B & Mitchell B (2007)
'Cleaning up the 'F' word'. A paper presented to the British Educational Research Association (BERA) Conference, September 2007.
A rewritten version 'Cleaning up the 'F' word in coaching' appeared in Rapport, Nov 2008.

Grove, David (2003).
The pristine noun: The search for the idyllic time when you are one with the world and the world is one with you. A keynote address presented at the 23rd Annual Conference of the American Association for the Study of Mental Imagery, Minneapolis, September 25–28, 2003.

Juszczyk, Konrad & Mickiewicz, Adam (2017)
'Participatory Sense-Making in Clean Coaching Conversations'. The 14th International Cognitive Linguistics Conference: Linguistic Diversity and Cognitive Linguistics. 10-14 July 2017 Tartu, Estonia.
Abstract: juszczy-Mickiewicz2017-Participatory_Sense_Making_in_Clean_Coaching_Conversations.pdf
Our initial results suggest that coach’s verbal repetitions increase the number of metaphorical expressions generated by the client, whereas coach’s gestural repetitions lead to shared mental representations of topic and content of the conversation of the coach and the coachee. Therefore, our data provides evidence that participatory sensemaking and client’s development of multimodal metaphor can be supported by coach’s clean coaching questions with specificrepetitions.

Karolia, Mohammed & Burton, Rob
'Metaphors we teach by: An exploration into how HE lecturers reflect on and conceptualise their experiences of teaching via the use of clean language interviewing model of exploring metaphor'. The Third International Neuro-Linguistic Programming Research Conference, Hertfordshire University, 6-7th July 2012.
Download: abstract-Karolia-Burton-2012.pdf

Lawley, J (2016)
'Using Clean Language to Model Embodied Mental Metaphors'. Keynote address to the Metaphor Festival 2016, MetaphorLab at University of Amsterdam, 31 August – 3 September 2016
Abstract: Lawley-Keynote-Metaphor_Festival_2016-Abstract.pdf

Meese, R, Tosey, P, Lawley, J, Sullivan, W & Meyer, M (2012)

'Symbolic Modelling as an innovative phenomenological method in NLP research: the work-life balance project'. The Third International Neuro-Linguistic Programming Research Conference, Hertfordshire University, 6-7th July 2012. Presented by Wendy Sullivan.
Download: abstract-Meese-Tosey-Lawley-Sullivan-Meyer-2012.pdf

Needham-Didsbury, I
"The Application of Metaphors in Psychotherapy". 5th Symposium on Intercultural, Cognitive and Social Pragmatics EPICS V. 14-16 March, 2012
I have found theoretical support for the idea that metaphors occur with relatively high frequency during therapy since they enable the expression of difficult feelings and half-formed thoughts. I discuss this in terms of Relevance Theory, in particular, the notion of weak implicatures. Adopting the RT framework, we can also make predictions for how metaphors should be used in therapy, noting that the approach known as ‘Clean Language’ (Sullivan & Rees, 2008) seems to be in line with these theoretically grounded suggestions.

Nehyba, J (2016)
Second Person Interview: Psycho-phenomenology,Descriptive Sampling Method and Clean Language Interviewing. In Vyžádaná přednáška pro Psychiatrickou kliniku FN Brno. 2016.
Lecture presented basic method for researching of human consciousness from second person position, focused on psycho-phenomenology (Varela, Petitmengin), Expositional Interview within Descriptive Experience Sampling Method (Hurlburt) and Clean Language Interviewing. Download slides from:

Nixon, S & Walker, C (2008)
'When you are learning at your best you are like what?' Paper presented at META: From PDP to CPD. University of Gloucester.

Nixon, S & Walker, C (2009)
'When you are learning at your best you are like what? Connecting the student learner through PDP'. Paper presented at the Learning to be Professional Through a Life-wide Curriculum, Surrey University (31st March – 2nd April).

Nixon, S & Walker, C (2009)
'When you are learning at your best you are like what? Connecting the student learner through PDP'. Paper presented at the HEA conference (30 June-2 July, 2009).

Nooitgedagt M., Nieuwland W., Tompkins, P. & Lawley, J. (2016)
'What a difference a metaphor makes?: Exploring the impact of the choice of metaphor used'. Metaphor Festival 2016, MetaphorLab at University of Amsterdam, 31 August -3 September 2016.
Abstract: Nooitgedagt_etal2016-Metaphor_Festival_Abstract.pdf

Švec, V., Pravdová, B., Svojanovský, P. & Nehyba,  J. (2014)
„Čistý jazyk“ jako výzkumný nástroj pro detekci tacitních znalostí studentů učitelství. Konference české asociace pedagogického výzkumu 2014.
"Clean Language" as a research tool for the detection of the tacit knowledge of student teachers. Presented at Czech Educational Research Association Conference, 2014.
Abstract (in Czech and English):
Usinga single case study design, one student teacher was investigated. The data was collected through five in-depth interviews that made use of the method of 'clean language'.

Svojanovský, P. & Nehyba, J.
'Manifestations of Tacit Knowledge in the Metaphors of the Student.' Paper presented at 17th Biennial International Study Association of Teachers and Teaching Conference (ISATT). University of Auckland. 17 Aug 2015.
Slides available at:
Data collection was by a method known as "clean language" used to explore naturally occurring metaphors (Tosey, Lawley & Meese, 2014). Five in-depth interviews focused on a student teacher's subjective theories related to her pedagogical practice in secondary school. The goal of our research was not to uncover specific tacit knowledge (content) but to investigate how it is manifested (how metaphors appear in the interview process.

Walker, Caitlin (2017)
'Keeping your stuff out and gathering their stuff in'. The 5th LCSS PhD Methodology Conference, 15 June 2017 at University of Westminster.

Walker, C & Lawley, J (2015)
'Clean Interviewing: Keeping your stuff out and gathering their stuff in'. BPS European Coaching Psychology Conference, 10-11 December 2015, London.
Download submission: WalkerLawley-BPS_conference_submission-2015.pdf

Walsh, B. & Doyle. N (2009)
'Clean Feedback: The bedrock for developing professionalism?' Presented at Learning to be Professional through a Life-wide Curriculum at University of Surrey Centre for Excellence in Professional Training and Education, Guildford 31 March-1 April 2009.
Clean Feedback is a process designed to aid critical reflection, observation skills and goal setting. It encourages both the giver and the receiver of feedback to separate out what is being seen and heard from the meaning it has for people.  Receiving clean feedback trains people to be aware of the differing ways their actions may be perceived by others. Giving clean feedback trains the giver to become aware of their values and beliefs around other people’s behaviour. Giving clear examples of what it means to act in a professional way at work encourages staff and students to develop a flexible range of behaviours that maintain professional standards across diverse individuals. At Liverpool John Moores University this model has been introduced and evaluated with Post Graduate Trainee Teachers and the results of this pilot will be presented in our paper here.

Walsh, B., Nixon, S. & Walker, C. (2009)
'Learning Journeys; supporting the student learning experience'. Paper presented at the 4th European First-Year Experience conference, Netherlands (13th-15th May).

Note, I stopped updating the following section when there were too many citations for me to track (James Lawley).

4. Other citations in academic and professional journals

Mathison J & Tosey P (2008) 'Innovations in Constructivist Research: NLP, psychophenomenology and the exploration of inner landscapes' The Psychotherapist Issue 37 Spring 2008, pp. 5-8.
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Owen, Ian, R. (1991) 'Using the sixth sense: The place and relevance of language in counselling' British Journal of Guidance and Counselling, 19 (3), 307-319.
Purchase from:

Recchia-Luciani, Angelo N. M. (2011) 'Manipulating Representations', Journal of Biosemiotics, May 2011.
Free download from:

Tosey P & Mathison J (2010) 'Exploring inner landscapes through psychophenomenology: the contribution of neuro-linguistic programming to innovations in researching first person experience.' Qualitative Research in Organizations and Management, 5(1), 63-82.
Abstract and purchase from:

Tosey P, Mathison J  & Michelli D (2005) 'Mapping Transformative Learning the potential of neurolinguistic programming',  Journal of Transformative Education Vol 3 No 2 pp. 140-167.
Free download from:

Tosey P & Mathison J (2007) 'Fabulous Creatures of HRD a critical natural history of NeuroLinguistic Programming' paper for the Eighth International Conference on HRD Research and Practice Across Europe 27-29 June 2007, Oxford Brookes Business School.
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Tosey P & Mathison J (2009) 'Transformative learning from critical reflection to emergence through guided introspection' paper for the 10th International Conference on Human Resource Development Research and Practice Across Europe, Newcastle Business School, June 2009.
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Tosey P & Mathison J (2009) NLP: A Critical Appreciation for Managers and Developers, Palgrave Macmillan.

Tsang, S.
'Abba Revisited: Merging the Horizons of History and Rhetoric through the new Rhetoric Structure for Metaphors' Acta Theologica Supplementum 9 and African Journal Online.
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James LawleyJames Lawley offers psychotherapiy to individuals and couples, and coaching, research and consultancy to organisations. He is a co-developer of Symbolic Modelling and co-author (with Penny Tompkins) of Metaphors in Mind: Transformation through Symbolic Modelling, (with Marian Way) Insights in Space: How to use Clean Space to solve problems, generate ideas and spark creativity and an Online training in Clean Language and Symbolic Modelling. For a more detailed biography see about us and his blog.


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