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Publications that make use of David Grove's ideas

2. Academic and professional publications and research –Authors M-Z

Manea, A. I. & Barbu, I. A. (2017). Mental Space meets Psychology – a new Paradigm and Approach to Psychotherapy, Journal of Experiential Psychotherapy, 20 (3), 37-43.
This paper outlines the basic concepts of mental space representations, its primary concepts and the connection to psychology and psychotherapy. Also included are the descriptions of three mental space based psychotherapies [including Clean Space] and their applications. A comprehensive list of references containing case-studies and researches is also provided.

Manea, A. I. & Barbu, I. A. (2018). Psihoterapiile Spațiale O abordare emergentă, ArtTE - Revista de terapii creativ-expresive și dezvoltare personală unificatoare, volumul 5, numarul 8.
Article published in ArtTE: The magazine of creative-expressive therapies and personal development
about Mental Space Psychology as an emergent approach with a section dedicated to Clean Space

Martin, J. N.T.
(2007). Book Review: Metaphors in Mind: Transformation Through Symbolic Modelling, by James Lawley and Penny Tompkins, Metaphor and Symbol, 22(2):201-211.
Download prepress version: Martin_2007-Metaphors_in_Mind_Review.pdf
Conversations at a recent [metaphor] conference suggested that the work [Metaphors in Mind] describes is not yet well known to metaphor researchers. Perhaps this reflects the gulf between the practitioner/trainer world of shared experiences and face-to-face contact versus the academic world of journal articles and statistics. But if I had a research student working on metaphor, experience of Lawley and Tompkins' work would be a key part of the basic training because of its striking capacity to bring our internal metaphorical worlds to life.

Martin, J. N.T. & Sullivan, W. (2007). "... and good systems practice is [pause] like [pause] what?": 'Clean Language' and 'Metaphor Landscapes' as potential tools in Systems Practice. A revised version of the paper presented at the 11th United Kingdom Systems Society (UKSS) International Conference, Oxford University, 3-5 September 2007, Joined up thinking for a joined up world. Revised version published in Systemist Vol 29, No 3, Nov 2007.
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Checkland has referred to the primacy of cognitive processes, and the importance of self-reflection and phenomenology in modern Systems thinking. This paper takes that position at its face value and describes a way of reflecting on one’s sense-making cognitive processes that is well established in its own domain, but not widely known to Systems practitioners. It was developed as ‘clean language’ by David Grove (Grove & Panzer, 1989) and subsequently codified as ‘symbolic modelling’ by James Lawley and Penny Tompkins (Lawley & Tompkins, 2000).

McGrath, M. (1998). A Study in the Use of Symbolism in Counselling. MA thesis: University of Durham, Centre for Studies in Counselling.

Munsoor, M. S. (2018) Knowing Thyself: A Causal Model of Spiritual Leadership and Self-Development: A Case Study of the Naqshbandiyah Khalidiyah Spiritual Order in Malaysia. Department of Aqida and Islamic Thought, Academy of Islamic Studies, University of Malaya, Malaysia. (Doctoral thesis)
The emerging data set was constructed through the use of the ‘clean language’ approach, which builds on the original narratives of the subjects, with methodological triangulation including interview and survey data.

Naughton, L. (2009). Beyond Narrative: Modelling Metaphor in Environmental Discourse. MSc thesis:Cranfield University, School of Applied Sciences innovation and Design for Sustainability.

Needham-Didsbury, I. (2011). The Application of Metaphors in Psychotherapy, a dissertation submitted in partial fulfilment of the requirement for the Masters in Research in Speech, Language & Cognition, University College London, Division of Psychology & Language Sciences.

Needham-Didsbury, I. (2012). The Use of Figurative Language in Psychotherapy, University College London, Working Papers in Linguistics 2012, pp. 75-93
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This paper surveys a proportion of the literature on the use of metaphor in psychotherapy including Grove's work and Symbolic Modelling.

Needham-Didsbury, I. (2014). Metaphor in Psychotherapeutic Discourse: Implications for Utterance. Poznań Studies in Contemporary Linguistics, 50(1), 2014, pp. 75–97.
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This paper examines figurative expressions in two passages from attested psychotherapy exchanges where explicit use is made of metaphor for therapeutic purposes and discusses the use of Clean Language in this context.

Nehyba, J. & Lanc, J. (2013). Koncept čistého jazyka v psychoterapii (The Concept of Clean Language in Psychotherapy), Psychoterapie: praxe – inspirace – konfrontace, 7(2) 123-133 Brno: Masaryk university.
The article introduces 'clean language' or a 'clean approach' - one of the post-modern oriented therapeutic approaches, building on the ideas of the late David Grove. The way of facilitating the therapeutic session is specific in the 'cleanness' from the therapists conscious and unconscious contents it strives for in the interaction. This allows the client to immerse himself deeper in his own mind-body processes and their organization. After the theoretical background, the article focuses on the practical example of how is possible to 'let emerge' metaphors, self-reflections, insights or 'aha!' moments for the client. In the concluding part, the text offers a discussion of the principles of the clean approach and the ways it can be inspiring for therapists.

Nehyba, J. & Lawley, J. (2020). Clean Language Interviewing as a second-person method in the Science of Consciousness, Journal of Consciousness Studies, 27(1–2):94–119
This article reports on Clean Language Interviewing (CLI), a rigorous, recently developed ‘content-empty’ (non-leading) approach to second-person interviewing in the science of consciousness. Also presented is a new systematic third-person method of validation that evaluates the questions and other verbal interventions by the interviewer to produce an adherence-to-method or ‘cleanness’ rating. A review of 19 interviews from five research studies provides a benchmark for interviewers seeking to minimise leading questions. The inter-rater reliability analysis demonstrates substantial agreement among raters with an average Intraclass Correlation Coefficient of 0.72 (95% CI). We propose that this method of validation is applicable not only to CLI but to second-person interviews more generally.

Nehyba, J., & Svojanovský, P. (2017). Clean language as a data collection tool. Chapter 5 in V. Švec, J. Nehyba & P. Svojanovský, et al., Becoming a teacher: The dance between tacit and explicit knowledge (pp. 130-147). Brno: Masaryk University.
Download at: Nehyba&Svojanovsky2017-Clean_language_as_a_data_collection_tool.pdf
This chapter explains and evaluates how the data collection method entitled Clean Language was implemented in our research. In the context of pedagogical sciences, it is a new way of interviewing, which helps to gather data as closely as possible from first person (Searle, 1992; Varela, 1999). We explain how we understand the term Clean Language and how we interpret it, and then move to the actual analysis of how we used this method in practice, i.e. in conducting the research interviews.

Nixon, S. (2013). Using Metaphors to Aid Student Meta-Learning: When You’re Learning at Your Best Your Like What?, Creative Education 2013. Vol.4, No.7A2, 32-36 Published Online July 2013 in SciRes.
This paper adds to the body of knowledge in relation to students using metaphor as a tool to support meta-learning. This project focuses on what students are like when they are “learning at their best” and discusses what knowing this information does for both individual self-awareness and working with others. Six final year students spent half a day exploring, developing and pictorially representing their “learning at best” metaphors.  All six students were positive that the development of personal learning metaphors was beneficial and thought that it was important that these were developed systematically over time. The benefits were highlighted to be both for the individual working on their own and for understanding others in group work situations.

Nixon, S. (2014). Teaching and learning pedagogies to enhance practice in Higher Education: a practitioner's perspective. A thesis submitted in partial fulfilment of the requirements of Liverpool John Moores University for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy. Liverpool John Moores University, Faculty of Education, Health and Community.
This mixed method approach studied the enhancement of the student experience through creating conditions where excellent learning can occur both individually and through working in communities of practice. Includes the application of Clean Language and Systemic Modelling.

Nixon, S. & Walker, C. (2009). Personal Development Planning - Inspiring Capability, chapter 11 in Enhancing Student Centred Learning in Business and Management, Hospitality, Leisure, Sport and Tourism, edited by John Buswell and Nina Becket for HLST, Oxford Brookes University, published by Threshold Press.
PDP has been an area of interest within the Sport Development programme at Liverpool John Moores University. The chapter begins with the context for the project and what we wanted to happen. Then outlines the philosophy underpinning our approach and introduce key features including the notion of autogenic metaphors for learning, clean (metaphor-free) questions, clean set-up and clean feedback. It continues with how we engaged staff and students, some challenges, learning and the impact so far, and then ends with a summary of how we will do things differently in the coming year year

Nixon, S. & Walker, C. (2009). Modelling the curriculum through metaphors: one programme's approach, CETL Journal: Innovations in Practice, 1(2), 3-6.
As part of exploring Personal Development Planning (PDP) across the Sport Development programme we decided to gather the views of staff on the programme to see if we could agree on a common model, philosophy and message. This approach, called Metaphors at Work (Walker 2007), allows individuals and groups to explore their own thoughts and perceptions on a subject, in this case the degree programme, through the development of metaphors [using Clean Language] and their associated meaning. The process has a number of stages which are documented in this paper with the overall objective being to get to a jointly shared view amongst staff.

Open University (1999). Imagery and Metaphor, part of the OU Business and Management postgraduate course B822: Creativity, Innovation and Change produced by John Martin. The course includes three videos related to David Grove's work featuring Caitlin Walker: Engaging the Imagination; Group Metaphor Development; and Clean Language.
How do you address problematic issues at work? This [programme] reveals more creative ways to solve problems, other than relying on rational techniques such as brainstorming and lateral thinking. Employees at a small software company are shown how to access their unconscious minds using the power of imagery, associative thinking, [Clean Language] and metaphor, to find solutions and creative approaches to their work. Meanwhile at a Neuro-Linguistic Programming seminar, participants learn to use metaphor for practical problem-solving. The facilitators also comment and discuss their techniques and observations, including the significance of gesture, body language and breathing in the sessions.

Open University (2004). Practical Thinking: an online course in perception, ideas and action, T185, part of the Technology Faculty’s 'Relevant Knowledge' programme (2004-2006, no longer available) produced by John Martin:
This ten-week course  is presented online and explores the practical role of metaphor in shaping and transforming various areas of imagery, thinking and communication. Application areas include the concept development stages of policy-making and design, the generation of ideas, visualising implementation issues, the communication of complex project ideas, problem-solving, resolving differences, and so on. T185 draws heavily on the ideas of cognitive scientists such as Lakoff and Johnson, classic writers on creative problem solving such as George Prince, management writers such as Gareth Morgan and practitioners such as Lawley and Tompkins.

Owen, I. R. (1989). Beyond Carl Rogers: The work of David Grove, Journal of Interprofessional Care, 4(4), 186-196.
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This paper introduces the psychotherapy of David Grove. It re-emphasizes the need for therapists, or healers of all kinds, to be aware of the language, therapeutic structure and experience of clients. Clients' experiences are more fully understood in the context of greater awareness of the inter-relationships of language, experience, belief, enculturation and communication. The case for a phenomenological therapy is put forward.

Owen, I. R. (1991) Using the sixth sense: The place and relevance of language in counselling British Journal of Guidance & Counselling 19:3 307-319 DOI: 10.1080/03069889108260394
The last section of this paper outlines a form of therapy devised by David Grove and using clean language that has been demonstrated to 20,000 therapists worldwide since 1985.

Owen, I. R. (1996). Clean Language: A linguistic-experiential phenomenology, in A.-T. Tymieniecka (Ed.) Analecta Husserliana, Vol. 48. pp. 271-297, Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic.
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In this study [David Grove's] clean language is applied to make a reproducible method for phenomenologists as this new procedure adheres to many phenomenological first principles. The method reveals the place of metaphor and metonymy as possible connections between language and lived experience.

Philmon, J. N. (2019) Pushing toward Pushback: A Phenomenological Multi-Case Study Exploring the Transformative Potential of Coaching Conversations. A Dissertation Submitted to the Faculty in the Curriculum and Instruction Program of Tift College of Education at Mercer University, Atlanta, GA, in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree Doctor of Philosophy.
The research used a Clean Language interview protocol designed to ensure that “all descriptions and evaluations are sourced exclusively from the interviewee’s personal vocabulary and experience” (Lawley & Linder-Pelz, 2016, p. 120). The Clean Language interviews involved combining the participant’s own words with 12 reflective question stems to conceptualize the experience from their unique point of view.

Pickerden, A. M. (2013) How do older workers in the fire & Rescue service deal with work life balance issues as they plan for, approach and transition through retirement? Thesis submitted for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy at the University of Leicester.
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The research made use of Clean Language during the interviews (pp. 95-96).

Pieśkiewicz, B. & Kołodkiewicz, M. (2011). Metafora w coachingu: zastosowanie metody Clean Coaching w pracy z organizacjami [Metaphor in coaching: Application of Clean Coaching method in working with organisations]. In: Czarkowska, L. (ed.), Coaching jako katalizator rozwoju organizacji [Coaching as a catalyst in orgnizational growth]. Warszawa: New Dawn.

Pincus, D. & Sheikh, A.A. (2009). Clean Language and Metaphor: The Work of David Grove in Imagery for Pain Relief: A scientifically grounded guidebook for clinicians. pp. 206-224 London: Routledge.

Pincus, D. & Sheikh, A.A.
(2011) David Grove's Metaphor Therapy. Imagination, Cognition and Personality 30(3) 259-287.
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Within the ever-expanding list of approaches to psychotherapy, there is a tendency to overlook deep imagery approaches. The current article reports on one such metaphor-based therapy developed by David Grove (Grove & Panzer, 1989). The approach is analyzed within the context of mainstream contemporary psychotherapy in general, the state of empirical understanding of common processes to psychotherapy, and in relation to other deep imagery-based approaches to therapy. Next, a step-by-step description of the techniques used within metaphor therapy are presented, along with a case example demonstrating the use of these techniques on a case involving pain symptoms. Finally, it is argued that deep imagery approaches in general, and Grove's approach in particular, may provide a means for greater theoretical integration within integrative healthcare.

Pole, N. & Cadney, P. (2016) ‘Very, Very Traumatic’ Working with Trauma with Clean Language and Shiatsu. Shiatsu Society Journal (UK), Winter 2016, Issue 140.

Rain, T., Lawley, J. & Henwood, S. (2016) From coaching and therapy to research interviewing: reflections and recommendations from practice. Acuity, April 2016 Volume 5.
Download: Rain_Lawley_Henwood2016-Research_Interviewing-Acuity_publication.pdf 
This article shares the personal experiences of one practitioner (Thora Rain) who made a successful transition to researcher. It focuses on the adjustments practitioners need to make to become high-quality researchers. It also draws on the longer experience of two of the paper authors (James Lawley and Suzanne Henwood) and offers some guidance to those thinking about taking on a research role, mentioning clean interviewing as a "helpful methodology".

Rees, J. & Manea, A.I. (2016). The Use of Clean Language and Metaphor in Helping Clients Overcoming Procrastination. Journal of Experiential Psychotherapy. 19 (3).
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In psychotherapy, coaching and personal development, problems are often framed in terms of metaphor. For example, procrastination might be described as a “mysterious” force, holding the client back from creating the happy, fulfilled life he often dreams of. Clean Language, created by the late David Grove between the 1980s and the 1990s, is a process designed to use such client metaphors as an engine for positive change. In this article, we show how it works in a typical one-on-one session.

Robinson (Foreman), F. (2013). How does exploring metaphorical representations of organisational change at its best affect levels of well-being in an ambiguous and rapidly changing public sector work environment?  Paper presented to The Third International Neuro-Linguistic Programming Research Conference, Hertfordshire University, 6-7th July 2012.
A shorter version was published in Acuity, 2013(4), 104-126
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This study found that exploring metaphorical representations of organisational change at its best correlated significantly with increasing well-being during a period of organisational change; potentially mitigating deleterious effects and causing a small well-being uplift. Group and one-to-one interventions showed similar well-being correlations over a three-month period. However, the nature of the effect was different, with insights and positive affect the prime outcome for the one-to-one intervention, and workshops additionally leading to experimentation with new skills. There are four implications of this study for clean language practitioners. Firstly, clean language and symbolic modelling interventions are suitable as part of the change management mix to support employee well-being. Secondly, metaphorical interventions have effects over time, undertaking interventions over a period is recommended. Thirdly, creating an open, safe environment for exploration and insight is key to supporting well-being. Finally, teaching clean language will enable application of learning into other contexts. Using one-to-one interventions may require more sessions to lead to behavioural change.

Rusch, D. C. (2017) Making Deep Games – Designing Games with Meaning and Purpose. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press Taylor & Francis Group.
This book offers a perspective into how to make games that tackle the whole bandwidth of the human experience, games that teach us something about ourselves enable thought-provoking emotionally rich experiences and promote personal and social change. Dr Rusch, Ass. Prof. at DePaul University says "the book is strongly influenced by Metaphor Research and Symbolic Modeling". See especially section 3.3.1.

Sanders, J., de Vries, R., Besseling, S., & Nieuwenhuijze, M. (2018) 'Such a waste'–Conflicting communicative roles of Dutch midwifery students in childbirth decision making - Midwifery, Volume 64, September 2018, Pages 115-121.
In-depth interviews and a focus group with seventeen Dutch midwifery students were conducted and analyzed applying a grounded theory approach. The interviewer asked neutral, non-judgmental questions, using clean language (Tompkins and Lawley, 1997).

Schenck, K. (2013). "So What's a Meta For?" InterAction - The Journal of Solution Focus in Organisations, Volume 5, Number 2, November 2013, pp. 35-53(19), SFCT.
The approach of “Clean Language” has cultivated a whole set of questions that may be helpful to know about, and useful for extending the toolbox of Solution Focus questions.

van Schuppen, L., Sanders, J. & van Krieken, K. (2021) Navigating Narrative Subjectivity in Schizophrenia: A Deictic Network Analysis of Narrative Viewpoints of Self and Other Inquiries. In Macagno, Fabrizio, Capone, Alessandro (Eds.) Inquiries in Philosophical Pragmatics: Issues in Linguistics. Springer.
An interview was conducted according to the clean language method (Lawley and Tompkins, 2000), which is aimed at minimizing the influence of the interviewer on the verbal narrative production of the interviewee by evading interpretive and morally loaded words like 'problem', 'normal', 'strange', and 'false', and asking for clarification without offering interpretation (p.178)

Sinnige, M. (2019). Bijgewoond: Clean Space. Workshop begeleid door James Lawley en Michael Oskam Haptonomisch Contact nr 1 30e jaargang maart 2019 pp 12-13.
Clean Space: A workshop supervised by James Lawley and Michael Oskam, Journal of Haptonomic Contact, nr 1, 30th volume, March 2019, pp 12-13. (in Dutch and translated into English).

Smith, K. (2014). Towards a Model of Clean Supervision. The Listener: A journal for coaches No.6 October 2014.

Švec, V., Nehyba, J. & Svojanovský, P. (Eds.). (2016). STUDENTI UČITELSTVÍ MEZI TACITNÍMI A EXPLICITNÍMI ZNALOSTMI Brno: Masarykova Univerzita MUNI press. ISBN:978-80-210-8428-5 doi:10.5817/CZ.MUNI.M210-8429-2016
The book (in Czech) discusses: metaphors, sharing knowledge, subjective tacit theories of teaching students teachers, unexpected circumstances and Clean Language research interviewing.
Chapter authors: Vlastimil Švec, Jan Nehyba, Petr Svojanovský, James Lawley, Radim Šíp, Eva Minaříková, Blanka Pravdová, Barbora Šimůnková, Jan Slavík.
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English transaltion  Švec, V., Nehyba, J. & Svojanovský, P. (Eds.) (2017). Becoming a teacher: The dance between tacit and explicit knowledge. Brno: Masaryk University. ISBN:978-80-210-8605-0 doi:10.5817/CZ.MUNI.M210-8605-2017
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The book focuses on pre-service teachers’ tacit knowledge in the second stage of their studies. It deals with the theoretical background and highlights the need for a radical turn in the methodology when we want to explore this concept. Drawing on this, a qualitative method of data collection which was used in the presented research, so called clean language, is described in detail. The empirical part of the book presents studies concerning topics connected to pre-service teachers’ tacit knowledge – unexpected situations, student teachers’ beliefs or explicit and tacit knowledge sharing.

Seldon, B. (2010). How Clean Is Our Language? Training and Development in Australia, Vol. 37, No. 4, Jul 2010: 36-37.

Sinclair, J. (2019). The Wave Model: A Holistic Exploration of thesea's positive effect on wellbeing. Chapter 6, Proceedings of Presented Papers 5th Annual Applied Positive Psychology Symposium (Ed. G. M. Cseh)
Questions were asked strategically to expand on nominalisations to help explore ongoing processes present for the interviewee using a ‘clean language’ interviewing technique (Sullivan & Rees, 2008).

Snoddon, M. (2005). Legacy of War: Experiences of members of the Ulster DefenceRegiment, Conflict Trauma Resource Centre, Belfast.
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Research included use of Clean Language in 12 interviews of individuals and four workshops each attended by 20 participants.

van Helsdingen, A. & Lawley, J. (2012). Zuiver belevingsonderzoek: het vermijden van onbedoelde beïnvloeding in kwalitatief onderzoek, Kwalon, 17(3):43-50.
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Translated from the original Dutch version as Modelling Shared Reality: avoiding unintended influence in qualitative research, Kwalon Vol 3, October 2012. (Journal of the Netherlands Association for Qualitative Research).
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Modelling Shared Reality is a new qualitative research methodology which is rooted in Clean Language and Symbolic Modelling. It minimizes undesired influence of the researcher during all stages of the research: design, interviews, analysis and reporting. The methodology is action oriented: both the process and the results function as a catalyst for action, behavioural and organizational change.

Vanson, S. (2011). Aligning identity in legal services firms: Do senior partners in legal services firms possess the core characteristics of identity to work in alignment within the firm? Thesis submitted in partial fulfilment for award of the degree of Doctor of Business Administration, University of Portsmouth, June 2011.
The study used clean language techniques to take out presupposition and incorporate narrative spacing in the questions asked of 11 senior partners from large UK law firms working across a range of legal specialisms.

Tompkins, P. & Lawley, J. (2006). Coaching with Metaphor, in Cutting Edge Coaching Techniques Handbook, Chartered Institute of Personnel and Development, Coaching at Work, September 2006

Tompkins, P., Sullivan, W. & Lawley, J. (2005). Tangled Spaghetti in My Head: Making use of metaphor, Therapy Today, Journal of the British Association for Counselling and Pychotherapy, October 2005.
Tosey, P. (2011). 'Symbolic Modelling' as an innovative phenomenological method in HRD research: the work-life balance project, presented at the 12th International Conference on HRD Research and Practice across Europe, University of Gloucestershire, 25th–27th May 2011.
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This project applied symbolic modelling in order to elicit the naturally occurring metaphors of six mid-career managers in the UK, relating to the way they experienced work-life balance. The analysis yielded a unique metaphor landscape for each manager. A key finding is that, although the ‘work-life balance’ metaphor is widespread, not one of the interviewees’ main metaphors overtly involved ‘a balance’. However, a number of their metaphors implied some form of balancing, for example ‘juggling’, ‘surfing’, or being in ‘equality’. The study illustrates potential enhancements that symbolic modelling and the clean language questioning technique can bring to phenomenological interviewing and analysis in HRD research. The results also have implications for the understanding of work-life balance, and for managers and human resource professionals who are dealing with work-life balance issues in the workplace.

Tosey, P.(2014). Clean Language in Research Interviews. Rapport 40 pp.44-46.
Download: Tosey-2014-Clean_Language_Interviews-Rapport40pp44-46.pdf
This introductory article outlines applications of Clean Language to research interviewing. Interviewers are likely to find Clean Language accessible and of potential use as an approach to data gathering.

Tosey, P. (2015). And what kind of question is that? Thinking about the function of questions in qualitative interviewing. Chapter 14 in Handbook of Research Methods on Human Resource Development. Editors, Saunders, M. N. K. & Tosey, P. Edward Elgar Publishing.
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This chapter explores qualitative interviewing, drawing from a project that investigated managers' metaphors of work-life balance, informed by a practice called Clean Language. The chapter highlights the function of questions in interviews and considers how to design and ask questions in order to elicit data of good quality.

Tosey, P., Lawley, J. & Meese, R. (2014). Eliciting Metaphor through Clean Language: an Innovation in Qualitative Research, British Journal of Management. Vol. 25, 629–646. doi: 10.1111/1467-8551.12042. Purchase at:
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This paper shows how an innovative method of questioning called Clean Language can enhance the authenticity and rigour of interview-based qualitative research. We investigate the specific potential of Clean Language as a method for eliciting naturally occurring metaphors in order to provide in-depth understanding of a person's symbolic world; despite substantial interest in metaphors in the field of organizational and management research there is a lack of explicit, systematic methods for eliciting naturally occurring metaphors. We also demonstrate how Clean Language can improve qualitative research more widely by addressing the propensity for researchers inadvertently to introduce extraneous metaphors into an interviewee's account at both data collection and interpretation stages. Data are presented from a collaborative academic–practitioner project in which Clean Language was used as a method of interviewing to elicit the metaphors of six mid-career managers, relating to the way they experienced work–life balance. The first contribution of this paper is to demonstrate the potential of Clean Language for eliciting naturally occurring metaphors in order to provide in-depth understanding of a person's symbolic world. The second contribution is to show how Clean Language can enhance the rigour and authenticity of interview-based qualitative research more widely.

Tosey, P., Sullivan, W. & Meyer, M. (2013). Clean Sources: Six Metaphors a Minute? University of Surrey ISBN: 978-1-84469-029-9.
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It is frequently suggested, in relation to Clean Language, that people use six metaphors a minute. But do you know where that figure comes from, and what it is based upon?

Walker, C. (2006). Breathing in Blue by Clapton Duck Pond, Counselling Children and Young People, British Association of Counselling and Psychotherapy, Dec 2006, pp.2-5.
Walsh, B. , Nixon, S. , Walker, C. and Doyle, N. (2015). Using a Clean Feedback Model to Facilitate the Learning Process. Creative Education, 6, 953-960.
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In this article we examine the “clean feedback” model developed by Walker and Doyle (2006) and explore its impact on the learning experiences of a purposeful sample of eleven beginning physical education teachers. The findings indicate that the model has improved the students’ ability to give and receive both positive and negative feedback and to improve students self awareness and understanding of their own learning and teaching styles.

Ward, C., Tosey, P. & Cairns-Lee, H. (2013). 'A Strange Route to Get Here': Metaphors of Leadership Development and Leadership. Presented at 14th International Conference on Human Resource Development Research and Practice across Europe, 5-7 June 2013: HRD in Turbulent Seas-Continued Global Economic Uncertainty: Challenges and Opportunities. University of Brighton, Brighton Business School, UK.
The purpose of this paper is to explore leaders’ naturally occurring metaphors of leadership development and leadership. It reports a secondary analysis of interview transcripts from a study (Ward and Preece, 2012) of seven leaders.

Way, M (2018) Finding your creative place with Clean Space. Rapport, Issue 61, pp. 44-45.

Wilson, C. (2012) “Do you see what I see?” Coaching at Work. Vol 7 Issue 3, pp.52-53.
Download: Wilson2012-Do you see what I see-Coaching at Work.pdf
An account of a session that combines Clean Language and metaphor with an Emergent Knowledge technique called Clean Boundaries.

Wing, S. B. (1994) David Grove Metaphor Therapy and traumatic memory resolution with incarcerated sex offenders. A dissertation submitted in partial fulfilment for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy in Clinical Psychology, The Union Institute & University, Ohio. March 1994.

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